Dyslexia is a complex neurological condition which is constitutional in origin. The symptoms affect many areas of learning and function, and be described as a specific difficulty in reading, spelling and written language. One or more of these areas may be affected-numeracy;
notational skills (music), motor function and organizational skills also be involved. However, it is particularly related to mastering written language although oral language be affected some degree‘The Dyslexia Handbook’.
Children with dyslexia have difficulty in learning to read despite traditional instruction, at least average intelligence, and an adequate opportunity to learn. It is caused by impairment in the brain’s ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language. It does not result from vision or hearing problems. It is not due to mental retardation, brain damage, or a lack of intelligence. It should not be taken as laziness, stupidity or lack of interest. It is not simply the reversal of letters, numbers and words. It is not curable but definitely manageable for the life time. Classroom teachers may not be able to determine if a child has dyslexia. They may detect early signs that suggest further assessment by a Clinical psychologist in order to actually diagnose the disorder.
The major symptoms include:
- Mixing up sounds in multisyllabic words (animal for animal, Kafish for Kashif))
- Inability to rhyme by age 4
- Inability to correctly complete phonemic awareness tasks
- Difficulty in learning the names, letters and their sounds
- Difficulty in writing the alphabets in order
- Unusual way of forming letters, unusual beginning and ending points
- Difficulty with fine motor tasks as tying shoes, buttoning and unbuttoning etc
- Confusion of left verses right, over versus under, before versus after (dab for bad, was for saw)
- Lack of dominant handedness
- Difficulty in copying from the board or a book can also suggest problems.
- There may be a general disorganization of written work.
- A child may not be able to remember content, even if it involves a favorite video or storybook. Problems with spatial relationships can extend beyond the classroom and be observed on the playground.
- The child may appear to be uncoordinated and have difficulty with organized sports or games. Difficulty with left and right is common, and often dominance for either hand has not been established.
- Reversals and substitutions of letters and numbers (6/9, b/d, p/q, f/t) such reversals are fairly common up to the age of 7 or 8 and usually diminish by that time.
- Delayed speech, (not any words by first birthday)
- Lots of allergies or stronger and more severe reactions to childhood illness than other kids
- Possibility of having ADHD/ADD or other behavioral problems
Dyslexia can go undetected in the early grades of schooling. The child can become frustrated by the difficulty in learning to read, and other problems can arise,which disguise dyslexia. The child may show signs of low self-esteem and low -confidence. Behavior problems at home as well as at school are frequently seen. The child may become unmotivated and develop a dislike for school. The child’s success in school cbeat risk if the problem remains untreated. A child with dyslexia may go unnoticed for several years and yet get criticized by their teachers and parents for the mistakes they made. This will let a child feel confused about him or herself,they will try their best to overcome these problems in their own way, but still results are the same. Consequently, this child will become so negative towards parents, school and studies; eventually they will give up on making any effort.
Reading and spelling
- Slow, labored, inaccurate reading of single words in isolation (when there is no story or pictures to provide clues)
- When reading aloud, read slowly, ignore punctuation and intonation
- Become visibly tired after reading for only a short time
- Reading comprehension may be low due to spending so much energy trying to read the words. Listening comprehension is usually better than reading comprehension
- Misreads, omits or even adds small function words, such as an, a, from, the, to
- Frequently reverses letters (bog for dog, nam for man)
- Substitute a similar-looking word, even if it changes meaning of the sentence- sunrise for surprise, house for horse
- When reading a story or a sentence, substitutes a word that means the same thing but does not look at all similar (travel for journey, fast for speed)
- Omits or changes suffixes, such as need for needed, late for lately
- Difficulty in pronouncing even familiar words; merain-remain
- If readers look away from the page he will be slow in finding his place
- Foreshortening: remember – remember
- Repetition of a word
- Capitals left out or in the wrong places
- i’s not dotted, t’s not crossed
- Badly formed letters, or if shape is correct, formed in unconventional way
- Difficulty in keeping on the line
- Each line starting further from the margin
- New paragraphs not indented
- Omissions of punctuations
Treatment of Dyslexia
Dyslexia is a life-long condition but it is manageable. People having dyslexia need to be identified at an early age for better help. With proper help people with dyslexia can learn to read and/or write well. Most people with dyslexia need help from a trained therapist mainly using a multisensory, structured language approach. Different strategies based on several senses (hearing, seeing, touch) are required. Many individuals with dyslexia need one-on-one help so that they can move forward at their own pace. For students with dyslexia, it is helpful if their therapists work closely with classroom teachers. Schools can implement academic modifications to help dyslexic students succeed. For example, a student with dyslexia can be given extra time to complete tasks, or help with taking notes, and/or appropriate work assignments. Teachers can give taped tests or allow dyslexic students to use alternative means of assessment. Students can benefit from listening to books-on-tape and from writing on computers.
- Give less homework (shorter essays, or underline main points to learn)
- Mark written work on content (Not spelling)
- Mark on oral responses when possible
- If reading long words, divide syllable with a pencil line
- Put child in front of class so you can help
- Check whether he/she knows the alphabets, and can say the days of the week and months of the year in their right sequence; also, whether he/she can tell the time
What does IMPACT do?
Our therapy sessions are designed in a way to help children having these difficulties such as reading, writing, spelling, comprehension, mathematics etc.
Our specialist conducts session on one to one basis, in a quiet room with minimum distractions. We develop individualized educational plan for each child according to their needs. We use multi-sensory approach to overcome these difficulties.
Children at IMPACT show a fast progress and improve drastically; a warm and friendly environment facilitates learning and helps them enhance their confidence and self-esteem which is being affected due to having any learning difficulty. These children are misunderstood and face rejection and criticism as a result.
We are geared to provide unconditional acceptance to anyone who comes to us, consequently, helping them gain their confidence and strength.