The acronyms ADHD and ADD stand for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder, respectively. Both of these words are interchangeable. ADHD is a more complex and severe attention disorder that includes an aspect of hyperactivity.
Globally, 3-5 percent of children suffer from this condition APA, 1998, but not all of them are diagnosed, and symptoms may last into adulthood in certain cases.
ADHD affects 14 to 20 percent of boys and approximately 5 to 7 percent of girls in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten.
Inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are more common in people with ADHD/ADD than in people his age group.
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness are three of the most common symptoms of ADHD in children.
Does not follow instructions or complete tasks
- Does not seem to be paying attention while others are speaking
- Forgetful of everyday activities
- Has difficulty arranging daily tasks
- Avoids or despises tasks that necessitate prolonged sitting or exertion.
- Frequently misplaces objects, including personal items.
- a lack of concentration
- Other stimuli easily confuse you and cause you to go off on a tangent
- Failing to complete the task at hand
- The attention process is very unpredictable – one day you are “in-tune” and finish all of your work, and the next day you are “be in a fog”
- Internal thinking process of daydreaming
- Doesn’t remain seated as long as you’d expect
- It’s difficult to play quietly.
- Constant movement, such as running or jumping on objects
- He/she talks a lot.
- Restless and can’t seem to calm down for a relaxing task like reading or napping.
- Appear motivated – will jump from one task to the next in search of further stimulation
- Excessive overt motor activity can lead to increased self-stimulation making noise, talking.
- Has a hard time waiting for his or her turn
- Before the topic is over, he blurts out answers.
- In general, there is a lack of self-control.
- “Think after they act,”. It’s too late by this point; they’ve already done it and are in serious trouble. When a child with ADD/ADHD is punched in the line at school, he can first look to see if the teacher is looking before punching back; in the same case, a child with ADD/ADHD reacts impulsively and reflexively – and is often caught and branded as “the aggressor.”
ADHD and adults
Adults with ADHD/ADD can present with symptoms that vary from those seen in children. They may also be linked to ADHD or the product of other behavioral problems. Among the signs and symptoms are:
- Chronic lateness and forgetfulness
- Low self-esteem
- Employment problems
- Difficulty controlling anger
- Substance abuse or addiction
- Poor organization skills
- Low frustration tolerance
- Chronic boredom
- Difficulty concentrating when reading
- Mood swings
- Relationship problems
The causes of ADHD are still unknown, although clinical studies have focused on some areas of study to identify some possible causes, such as genetic predisposition and differences in brain structure between ADHD and non-ADHD people.
ADHD ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER is a common neurodevelopmental disorder marked by impulsivity, inattention, and overactivity… According to school or group surveys conducted between 1978 and 2005, the global prevalence rate of ADHD/ADD was 5.3 percent, with figures of 7 percent and 3 percent for children and teenagers, respectively, and the symptoms affecting “daily life, work, family relationships, social interactions, and academic achievements” .
It is well recognized that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have academic difficulties, but the social barrier, as well as elevated health issues, are two of the most significant setbacks. As a result of their increased impulsivity, many children may have criminal records before they reach adulthood.
ADHD and ODD have been found to have a similar relationship. According to studies, about 40% of children with ADHD exhibit oppositional defiant disorder ODD.
• ODD can be linked to impulsivity caused by ADHD. According to Houston-based child psychologist Carol Brady, Ph.D., “many ADHD kids who are diagnosed with ODD are exhibiting oppositional tendencies by design.” “They misbehave because they can’t regulate their emotions, not because they’re deliberately antagonistic.”
• According to other researchers, ODD is a way for children to deal with the frustration and emotional distress that comes with getting ADHD.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A pattern of disobedient, aggressive, and rebellious conduct against authority figures is known as an oppositional defiant disorder.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
According to research condition is more common in boys than in girls. According to studies. According to studies, it affects 20% of school-aged children. This activity usually begins about the age of eight, but it may begin as early as preschool. A mixture of biological, psychological, and social causes is believed to be responsible for this condition.
- Actively does not follow adults’ requests
- Angry and resentful towards others
- Argues with adults
- Blames others for their own mistakes
- Has few or no friends or has lost friends
- Is in constant trouble in school
- Loses temper
- Spiteful or seeks revenge
- Touchy or easily annoyed
- Chronic aggression
- Frequent outbursts
- A tendency to engage in intentionally annoying behavior
These behavior patterns need to last for at least 6 months before the child is diagnosed with ODD, and must be more than normal childhood misbehavior.
The pattern of behaviors must be different from those of other children around the same age and developmental level. The behavior affects school or social activities of the child significantly.
When these behaviors persist till 18 years of age, they turn into Conduct disorder.
As these habits continue beyond the age of 18, they are classified as conduct disorder.
Remedies offered by IMPACT
IMPACT begins with a focus on the academic and behavioral issues of an ADHD child. Our major emphasis is on improving the child’s focus and concentration so that the child is able to pay sustained attention to a given task. Mostly, children are having difficulty finishing work in class or take a longer time to do homework, it happens due to a larger number of students in class and overall due to paying consistent attention to work.
We use different programs to improve children’s focus and attention span, different strategies are taught to children and their parents to achieve this. Besides this, behavioral contracts and token economy programs are also used.
Work with an ADHD child is not complete without involving the family, since many changes are required at home also.
To increase children’s focus and attention span, we use a variety of programs and teach children and their parent’s various techniques. Behavioral contracts and token economy systems are also employed.
Working with an ADHD child is incomplete without involving the family, as many improvements at home are often expected.